Food & drink that stains your teeth

Everyone loves a bright, white smile. Today that should be easier than ever to achieve, given the widespread awareness of good dental health. These days, you know it’s important to look after your teeth and gums but do you know which food stains your teeth? Your dentist will have mentioned that you need to brush your teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. You will also be advised to floss (or use an interdental brush) daily to remove food and plaque. Deep down, you will probably realise how important regular dental check-ups are for early problem detection, too. And, of course, you may realise how vital it is to act promptly if dental treatments are needed.

The information above should help to provide a fool proof path in your quest for perfect pearly whites. However, it isn’t that easy. The reason? You still need to eat and drink. However, did you know that the foods and drinks you enjoy could be why you are struggling to keep your teeth gleaming? So, follow our guidelines to help you combat food stains on your teeth and consider which drinks can be just as harmful.

The different types of teeth staining

Broadly speaking, there are three different types of teeth staining: intrinsic, extrinsic and age-related.

Intrinsic staining happens if the dentine (the inner structure of your tooth) becomes discoloured. There are a number of factors that can cause dentine to darken or become more yellow. These include:

  • Tooth trauma
  • The use of tetracycline antibiotics during pregnancy or early childhood
  • Too much exposure to fluoride during early childhood
  • The tooth development disorder condition dentinogenesis imperfecta.

Extrinsic staining takes place when the enamel (the outer layer of the tooth) becomes discoloured. This type of staining is often caused by certain food and drink. Smoking can also cause extrinsic staining.

Age-related staining is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Our teeth experience wear and tear too. Unfortunately, dentine naturally yellows as we age. Over time, our tooth enamel also gets thinner, which allows this yellower dentine to show through. Lastly, any physical knocks or chips to our teeth (more common as we age) can also cause discolouration.

Why do certain foods stain my teeth?

Foods and drinks, which are high in chromogens, all have the potential to stain your teeth. Chromogens are pigment-producing substances that can stick to your teeth’s enamel. As a guide, almost any food or drink that can stain clothes can also stain your teeth. As you’d expect, dark-coloured foods and beverages tend to be the biggest culprits.

Tannin is another substance that makes teeth more susceptible to staining. A bitter compound often found in drinks such as wine and tea, tannin helps chromogens attach themselves to tooth enamel.

You also need to be aware of the acid effect. Acidic foods and beverages can erode tooth enamel. This also makes it easier for pigments to latch onto your teeth and result in food and drink staining, and discolouration.

Which is the most common teeth-staining foods and drinks?

Here is our list of some of the most common foods and drinks that can stain your teeth:

Tea and coffee

Not many of us can get through the day without any, but tea and coffee both contain tannins. Research suggests that adding milk might help to counteract the staining. Unfortunately, green teen isn’t much better, as this can stain teeth grey!

Red wine

It’s bad news if you’re mad about Merlot. Like tea and coffee, red wine also contains tannins and is one of the most common causes of tooth staining. Unfortunately, switching to white wine isn’t the solution, as it’s actually more acidic than red.

Fizzy drinks

Drinks that are filled with sugar are just as bad as sugar-laden snacks. Carbonated sodas (even sugar-free versions) are very acidic. And anything dark, such as cola, is doubly damaging where stains are concerned.

Fruit juices

This might seem like a healthy option thanks to the vitamins within. However, most fruit juices are also very acidic, which can compromise your tooth enamel. Again, darker juices, such as blueberry, grape and cranberry, are the worst offenders.


Packed full with spices with powerful colouring, it’s not surprising that curry can cause extensive teeth discolouration and food stains. If you really can’t bear to forego your biryani, add some fruit and vegetables that can help prevent staining. These include carrots, apples, celery and cauliflower.

Balsalmic vinegar

Balsalmic vinegar is a hugely popular condiment these days – and a great salad dressing – but it’s not very tooth-friendly. It’s not only naturally dark, but it also sticks to your teeth. So staining is very likely indeed, unless it’s quickly brushed away.


They might be a fabulous way to consume your recommended five a day, but berries also stain your teeth. Darker pigmented fruits such as blueberries and blackberries are especially problematic.


Need we say more? Beetroots are an excellent source of fibre, folic acid, manganese and potassium. Some studies suggest that drinking beetroot juice may even help to lower blood pressure. But if you’ve seen what it does to your fingers/clothes, you’ll understand what it can do to your teeth.

What can I do to prevent teeth staining?

It is very difficult to completely avoid every type of food and beverage that can stain your teeth. But it is possible to limit consumption. In fact, small changes can make a big difference. Why not substitute a cup of coffee with something less staining, such as flavoured hot water? Rinsing your mouth thoroughly with water after eating or drinking foods that stain can also help.


Using a straw to consume cold drinks such as fruit juices, sodas and colas can also help to limit stain damage. Crunchy fruit and vegetables are useful, natural stain removers. This is because they help to boost saliva production and ‘scrub’ your teeth. Consuming a small cube of cheese after eating can also help to neutralise the acids that cause stains.

Above all, make sure you visit your dentist and hygienist regularly. We’ll be happy to dispense advice about how to keep your smile brilliantly white. If you’d like more information or to make an appointment, please call our practice .

Dental crowns explained

Most people have heard of a dental crown – but not everybody is sure what it actually is. A crown is actually an artificial cover or ‘cap’ that fits over an existing tooth. It is nothing to do with fillings, veneers or dental implants. A crown is most often used to repair and strengthen teeth that are broken or weak. It’s an effective way to restore a tooth’s shape and size, and also improve its function and alignment. Teeth with cavities that are too big to be filled are usually restored with a crown. In addition, crowns can be used for aesthetic purposes, to camouflage discoloured, unsightly or misshapen teeth. Crowns can be temporary or permanent. Certain materials offer more longevity than others. However, properly cared-for crowns should last for many years.

The different types of dental crowns

Crowns are available in a variety of different materials. The most common include:

  • Porcelain
  • Porcelain bonded to precious metal
  • Ceramic
  • Porcelain and composite.

As the name suggests, porcelain crowns are made entirely from porcelain. Their main advantage is that they are smooth and translucent, so look very natural. This is why they are most often used for the front teeth. However, they are less durable than other options, and not as strong as bonded crowns. In fact, porcelain is more susceptible to wear and tear, chipping and breaking. Some patients experience hypersensitivity to hot and cold, too.


Porcelain bonded crowns are a very popular option, largely because they provide a good compromise between strength and aesthetics. The porcelain top is applied in layers over a precious base metal. These crowns are suitable for both anterior and posterior teeth. However, it is sometimes possible to see a dark line (the metal component) where the crown meets the tooth.

Ceramic crowns are a metal-free alternative that deliver the strength of a bonded crown, combined with the appearance of porcelain. They are less durable than metal crowns, and more prone to cracking.

Porcelain and composite crowns are another natural-looking option. They are not the most durable, so are likely to need replacing earlier. But they are ideal for anyone with metal sensitivities.

How will my dentist fit my crown?

Preparation is key to a successful crown fitting – as is a skilled practitioner. Most crowns will require two separate fittings. At Lighthouse Dental Practice, our expert team is led by Dental Surgeons Dr Tocca and Dr Griffin. They are supported by our qualified dental nurses and knowledgeable practice receptionist.

Before your chosen crown can be fitted, your dentist will need to prepare your tooth. To do this, he or she will remove/trim down the tooth’s outer layers, so the crown fits neatly on top. The tooth’s inner core will remain. The thickness of the crown dictates how much tooth should be removed.

Once your tooth has been appropriately shaped, your dentist will take a number of impressions or moulds. These will help the crown to be custom-made, for a perfect fit. Your dentist will also note the shade of your natural teeth, so your new crown will blend in. At this stage, you may be fitted with a temporary crown as an interim measure. As a result, this will protect your tooth until the permanent crown is ready.

At your next appointment, your permanent crown will be checked for fit and appearance. If you and your dentist are happy, it will be fixed in place with an adhesive known as dental cement. This forms the seal that will hold the crown in place. You’ll need to bite down, usually on cotton gauze, until the cement sets completely. Then, any excess cement around the tooth will be gently scraped away.

Will having a crown fitted hurt?

No, it shouldn’t hurt. Before the treatment begins you will be given a local anaesthetic to numb your mouth. Some of the “filing” sensations may feel a little strange. However, the preparation work should feel no different to that of a filling.

Once the crown is fitted, initially it may feel unfamiliar and you will probably be very aware of it. This is perfectly natural, as it is likely to be a different size and shape to your pre-treatment tooth. But you’ll get used to it very quickly. Before too long your crown should look, feel and function like a natural tooth.

However, if your new crown continues to feel uncomfortable, or your bite feels wrong, make sure you tell your dentist. He or she will then check and make any necessary adjustments to the fit.

How should I care for my crown?

It’s completely normal to feel nervous with something new in your mouth. But it’s important to treat your crown like a natural tooth. You’ll need to keep it scrupulously clean. Because it’s an artificial restoration, the crown itself cannot decay. However, decay can occur in the small space where the edge of the crown joins the tooth. To combat this, you’ll need to brush thoroughly – we suggest at least twice a day – with a high-quality toothpaste. You should also floss regularly, or use a special interdental brush, to clean in between your teeth.

Lastly, if you’re prone to clenching or grinding your teeth, your dentist may recommend wearing a mouth guard at night. Repeated grinding will wear down your crown (and your natural teeth!). However, a suitable guard will offer good protection and help prolong the life of your crown.

Want to find out more about our range of dental crowns? Call our practice now on 01473 257379 for more information.


Stubbing It Out In ‘Stoptober’

The Lighthouse Dental team offers their support to those who are trying to stop smoking

Even if you have never smoked yourself, you will almost certainly know someone who does and likely who has tried to quit. For the very lucky few, this is straightforward. They make the decision to stop smoking and simply do just that. For the vast majority though, stopping smoking can be a very difficult thing to achieve.

To help those who wish to stop smoking, Public Health England runs a stop smoking campaign, aptly called ‘Stoptober’, due to the October month when it takes place. They offer a wide range of support and information on their website, and you can even download the Stoptober App to help you keep track of your progress.

Getting started

Making a decision to stop smoking is the first stage. It doesn’t have to be this month, if for example, you have a particularly stressful few weeks ahead. If you can though, it is a good idea as there will be support readily available and you may also find that you are not the only person in your workplace, or group of friends, who are trying to quit at the same time. By joining forces, you may be able to support each other through the most challenging times.

Why stop smoking?

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Prevention Of Dental Implant Failure

Dental Implants

Despite their excellent success rate, teeth implants can still fail if not looked after correctly.

Dental implant placement is now widely accepted by many to be the best method available for replacing missing teeth.

Not only does this procedure offer a realistic tooth alternative, but the success rate of the procedure is also very high. This does not mean that things can not go wrong though, and a lack of foresight or poor aftercare can lead to eventual failure. Fortunately, these mistakes are relatively simple to avoid.

There are two key components to having a healthy dental implant; the procedure itself and the aftercare.

Choosing your dentist

If you are planning to have dental implants, it is essential that you choose a dentist that is both qualified and experienced. If you choose to have this procedure in the UK, any dentist offering implants will be fully qualified, although their levels of experience may vary.

If you choose to have your treatment abroad, this is less easy to ascertain and we would caution our Ipswich patients against opting for this route; a route sometimes carried out to save on cost. Unfortunately, for reasons that we have covered in a previous blog, this is a route littered with hazards, from less experienced dentists to poor quality materials being used. Although you may save yourself a few pounds by taking this path, the stakes are very high and could result in discomfort and failed implants.

By choosing a reputable local dentist to perform this procedure, such as our own implant team, you can be sure that the correct checks and procedures are carried out, providing you with a healthy new implant.

What can cause implants to fail?

Aside from any problems associated with the above, there are a number of factors which can cause dental implants to fail:

Insufficient or degraded jawbone

Because dental implants are placed into the jawbone and allowed to fuse together before a crown is added, it is evident that there needs to be sufficient bone to facilitate this. This is something that will be checked at the Lighthouse Dental Practice in your pre-procedural consultation. X-rays and scans are used to determine if the patient has sufficient bone, and, where this is not the case, options such as a bone graft or sinus lift will be discussed.

Poor care during osseointegration (jawbone bonding)

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Dermal fillers: Everything you need to know

Anti-ageing injectables – including dermal fillers – are some of the most popular aesthetic treatments available. More and more celebrities (especially on TV reality shows such as Love Island) are sharing their cosmetic enhancements. As a result, it’s encouraging more people to boost their natural beauty. If you’re not quite ready for drastic plastic surgery, ‘tweakments’ like dermal fillers are an ideal option. So, read on to find out more about how to look younger without going under the knife.

What are dermal fillers?

Many people still confuse these with anti-wrinkle injections. While it’s true that such injections work very well together with dermal fillers, they are completely different treatments. Dermal fillers (sometimes known as facial fillers) are versatile injectable anti-ageing treatments. Performed correctly, they can improve a wide range of facial ageing concerns.

Dermal Fillers replace lost volume and lift and plump skin, giving a refreshed, more youthful appearance. They smooth lines, enhance definition and recreate youthful contours, especially on the lower half of the face. So, they’re a great way to counter loose and sagging skin.

Facial fillers are not muscle relaxants. They work by mimicking the effect of hyaluronic acid. This is a substance that occurs naturally in our bodies, but decreases as we age. Hyaluronic acid retains moisture and is vital for skin hydration. Hydrated skin literally indicates healthy skin. It looks plump, firm, smooth and glowing. In contrast, dehydrated skin looks dull, dry and droopy. As we age, we also also produce less collagen and elastin. This is our skin’s ‘scaffolding’, without which it wrinkles, sags and slackens. Dermal fillers help to counter this, by smoothing away lines and creating ‘lift’.

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Your Six Monthly Dental Check Up

Dental examination

Dr C B Tocca and team explain why patients should always attend.

For some people, taking time from work or other activities to see their dentist for a check up, may seem like an unnecessary inconvenience.

This is probably especially so for those fortunate patients who are routinely given a clean bill of health. Even if you are one of those people though, it is important that you do not miss your appointments. Even a healthy tooth can be painful if it becomes infected, and spotting that early on, can make a big difference to the long term prognosis.

It is commonly accepted that oral health checks should be carried out every six months. This is a perfectly acceptable length of time for most patients, but, if we do request that you see us more frequently, we would ask that you try to do so. Certain groups of patients, such as diabetics and those with a weak immune system may be at a higher risk of problems such as periodontitis, and it is therefore important that this is closely monitored.

What happens at your check up?

We ask that you try to arrive approximately ten minutes before your appointment time. This allows time for any administration and consent forms that need to be signed. Being prompt will also mean that others will not be delayed for their appointments. If you are sitting in a waiting room in some discomfort with a painful tooth, even a few minutes can seem like a long time, so naturally we try to avoid any delays if possible. Once you are in the dentist’s chair, we will first of all ask you a few questions about your general health and whether there have been any changes in your circumstances or medication. It is important that you provide us with accurate information please. Some medications, such as blood thinners, may impact on our ability to perform a procedure safely, so please do not omit any information.

If you have noticed any specific problems with a tooth or your gums, please let us know. Hoping it will go away will not solve the problem. Although we check all of your teeth and gums thoroughly, it is still very useful to be aware of any particular problems that you are having.

Our Ipswich dentists will then gently examine your teeth, looking for signs of decay, cracks or fissures, and gum disease symptoms. We may also measure any gum recession and note this down to compare with your previous visits. Finally, we will perform a soft tissue check; examining your cheeks, tongue and other soft tissues for any unusual signs. These can be caused by many things, but, if we feel that they are of concern, you may be referred to your GP for further investigation. Some soft tissue symptoms (1)  can be potential indications of oral cancer. Your referral to a GP should not be taken as a sign that this is the case though. It is purely precautionary and advisable that you are seen by someone qualified to diagnose any potential problems of this kind.


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Benefits of an electric toothbrush

Brushing your teeth twice a day can certainly help to keep your teeth and gums in good condition. However, making the right toothbrush choice can be just as important. Whether you choose a manual or electric toothbrush, do you know which toothbrush head, soft or firm, is best for your pearly whites? When it comes to cleaning techniques, why should the bristles cover the surface of your teeth and your gum line? If you think an electric toothbrush might be just what you need, read on. This way, you will find out all their benefits and how to use yours more effectively. If you live in Suffolk, you can even enter our competition below to win a Philips Sonicare Sonic model with an rrp of £299 via our Twitter feed @LighthouseDent2.  

How long should you brush for?

Whether you own a manual or electric toothbrush, you should brush your teeth for two minutes, morning and night. The key is to reach every tooth during this time. Electric toothbrushes have the ability to produce thousands more brush strokes than manual brushing. For example, a Philips Sonicare toothbrush can deliver an impressive 31,000 brush stokes a minute to help remove plaque. In fact, Philips claims this is the equivalent to one month’s worth of manual brush strokes in two minutes.

Keeping teeth, gums and your tongue healthy

The brush on an electric model uses a combination of motion and equal pressure, which means your entire mouth benefits from a thorough clean in the process. However, don’t be fooled that this method will do all the work for you. You’ll still need to cover all of the surfaces of your teeth using the right brushing technique. You will find there’s more to follow on technique later in this post. Also, make sure you stick to two minutes brushing and leave time for flossing between your teeth, twice a day. And don’t forget you’ll need to regularly replace your toothbrush head to ensure your model is working at full capacity.

Suitability for certain people

An electric toothbrush can be useful for a wide variety of reasons. If you are not removing enough plaque with your manual toothbrush our dentists may advise you to try an electric model. For children, they may find an electric one more fun to use in an effort to keep their oral hygiene in optimum condition. Also, people with mobility issues, such as arthritis, could find it easier to use a toothbrush with power. Even those with orthodontics, such as braces, may find an electric toothbrush can reach around the metal parts more easily.

Bad breath prevention

Brushing your teeth regularly can help to stop bad breath, which can occur as a result of food getting lodged between teeth and plaque forming. So combine an electric toothbrush with regular flossing and this should provide a powerful prevention and removal method.

What to buy

Buying the right brush head to suit you can be a minefield, but we always suggest you ask your dentist first. For adults, we tend to advise on a small to medium-sized version. This way, it will be compact enough to reach every part of your mouth. Also, nylon bristles with round ends, which are multi-tufted and soft to medium strength, can work well. However, everyone is different so it’s worth speaking to us about your needs first. Electric toothbrush types vary and include rotary, sonic, ultrasonic and ionic versions, which can all help you look after your beautiful pearly whites in their own way.

How to use your electric toothbrush

Once your heart is set on an electric toothbrush, it’s good to fully understood how your model works to make sure it is going to be effective. Did you know, whether you use a manual or electric model, you need to position the head of your brush at a 45 degree angle to the gum line? Consequently, your bristles should be in contact with both your teeth and your gum line for you to achieve the most efficient brushing technique. In addition, this is where you’ll find most plaque builds. Add a pea-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste to the head and hey presto, after two minutes’ brushing, you will find this is a great way to prevent tooth decay.

However, you still need to ensure you are brushing ‘everywhere’ during those two crucial minutes every morning and evening? By this we mean make sure you brush all three surfaces of your teeth – inside, outside and of course the biting surfaces. Don’t forget to brush your tongue and the roof of your mouth to help remove any lingering bacteria, too. Overall, try not to brush too hard or you could brush away the enamel, which protects your teeth. Over zealous brushing can also cause gums to recede so make sure you don’t use too much pressure.


Win a Philips Sonicare Sonic electric toothbrush

We set up our Twitter feed @LighthouseDent2 only this month and we’d love you to join us to hear all our latest news and views! So, to celebrate, we have a Philips Sonicare electric toothbrush worth £299 up for grabs for one lucky new Twitter follower.

To be in with a chance of winning, you must live in SUFFOLK. All you have to do is simply FOLLOW our Lighthouse Dental Practice Twitter feed, RETWEET and RESPOND to our competition tweets with #LighthouseDComp. Then one winner, chosen at random, will win this fantastic toothbrush.

Product details

Philips say this model will achieve a whiter smile in one week with their DiamondClean brush head. Results are based on two periods of two minutes’ brushing per day in standard mode. With five modes, including Deep Clean and Sensitive and Philips, it claims to remove up to seven times more plaque along the gum line than a manual toothbrush.

Don’t forget to FOLLOW us on Twitter. Remember, you won’t qualify to enter if you don’t live in Suffolk or start following us.

Terms & Conditions:

* You are providing your information to Lighthouse Dental Practice and not Twitter.
* You must be aged over 18 to enter this competition.
* Entrants must live in Suffolk.
* Closing date for all entries is midnight on October 8th 2018.
* We will select a winner at random on Tuesday October 9th 2018. We will then notify them with a direct message.
* This promotion is in no way sponsored, endorsed or administered by or associated with Twitter or Facebook.
* You are providing your information to Lighthouse Dental Practice and not Twitter.
* The prize is non-transferable and no cash alternative will be given.
* Winner has 48 hours to respond to notification that they’ve won. If we do not hear back from you, we reserve the right to choose another winner.


Taking Care Of Your New Dental Crown

Porcelain crown maintenance discussed by dental surgeon, Dr Anthony Griffin.

Porcelain crowns are used regularly in a number of situations within dentistry. The best known of these is probably for the restoration of a badly damaged tooth, but they are also used in other situations, namely the final part of a dental implant placement and completing a root canal restoration. Crowns are a very effective and versatile treatment, but it is also important that our Ipswich patients know how to take care of them correctly, once fitted.

Why you need to clean crowns

It is true that the porcelain or ceramic material of the crown is not susceptible to decay, but this does not mean you shouldn’t bother to clean them. The crown itself may not be affected if you don’t, but you should remember that it is being held in place by being secured to your natural tooth which could still decay or become weakened and damaged if you don’t clean properly. If the natural tooth suffers damage in this way, it will weaken the hold on the crown, and may cause it to become detached.

Whilst dental implants are somewhat different, the crowns used for this purpose still need to be cleaned thoroughly, and especially around the gum line and between the teeth. If you fail to do so, there is a likelihood that your gums will become infected, with gingivitis and periodontitis being a real possibility.

Discomfort and a threat to your teeth

Gum disease symptoms can range from a mild soreness, to serious damage being done to the supportive tissues of the teeth. At the very least, it can be uncomfortable and sore and red gums are likely, as is bleeding when you brush your teeth. More importantly, if your gum disease is not reversed, it can spread from the gum tissue to the bone surrounding your tooth root. If this becomes infected, bone loss is likely. This will eventually cause the tooth to become loose, and, if this becomes too extensive, you may well lose the tooth altogether.

How to clean your crowned tooth

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Stocking up your bathroom with oral care essentials

Dental surgeon, Dr C B Tocca, discusses everyday mouth care products.

If you are about to move into a new home, or are perhaps leaving for the first time to go to university, it is a good time to take a look at some of the essentials that you will need.

It is also an excellent opportunity to make sure that you have the correct oral health products to help to keep your teeth and gums in good condition.

Whilst you will still also need to visit our Ipswich practice to see the dentist and hygienist on a regular basis, the everyday care of your teeth will play a major part in them remaining healthy.


If you are moving, it is probably a good time to throw away any old toothbrushes that you may have been using. Manual brushes, and heads of electric ones, should not be used for more than three months before being replaced. Especially if you have a worn out brush, this should be the first item that you update.


Whatever your preference is for taste, the most essential thing you should look for in any toothpaste is that it contains fluoride. Most commercial brands do, although some ‘natural’ ones may not. Fluoride helps to strengthen the tooth enamel, helping to protect the tooth from decay. Be careful with some of the ‘whitening’ toothpastes on the market. Some of these may include additional abrasive ingredients, designed to remove surface staining. Unfortunately, these may also increase the risk of enamel damage in some cases.

Dental floss

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Cosmetic Dentistry For The More Mature Patient In Ipswich

Having great looking teeth shouldn’t be restricted to the ‘selfie generation’.

The common perception of cosmetic dentistry is that it is mainly for the younger generation, and  adverts for products such as whitening toothpastes probably only reinforce this view. The truth is that all ages can benefit from these treatments, with older people especially noticing the differences it can make to their lives.

At the Lighthouse Dental Practice, we believe that all of our Ipswich patients should have access to both healthy and attractive teeth, and offer a wide range of procedures to help them achieve that aim.

Teeth whitening

This is one of the most popular and accessible cosmetic dental treatments for all ages. Older people though, can really benefit from this treatment. As many of you may have noticed as you have become older, your teeth lose the sparkle that they once had when you were younger. Whilst some of this may be down to surface staining of the enamel, caused by eating or drinking habits, for most older patients, it is caused by the unavoidable darkening of the inner part of our teeth.

The dentin layer, which lies below the enamel, is a light colour when we are young. The older we get though, the darker it becomes, and this change is visible through the translucent enamel. The only way to whiten this effectively is with our teeth whitening procedure which enables our older patients to have nicer looking white teeth once more.

Dental implants

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